Of the 50 countries we studied in our Digital Evolution Index, 23 were European (not counting Turkey). Of these, only three, Switzerland, Ireland, and Estonia, made it to a commendable “Stand Out” category – which means that their high levels of digital development are attractive to global businesses and investors and that their digital ecosystems are positioned to nurture start ups and internet businesses that can compete globally. Fifteen European countries have been losing momentum since 2008 in terms of their state of digital evolution – this is what we mean by a digital recession – with the Netherlands coming in dead last in our momentum rankings. European countries occupy the nine bottom spots in our list of 50. Plus, the digitally receding countries include large economies like Germany, the UK, and France, as well as Finland and Sweden, Scandinavian tech powerhouses that were the early leaders of mobile telephony. Across the rest of Europe, the state of digital evolution has been mediocre and the pace of improvement, tepid. This dismal performance points to a glaring – and growing — digital gap as Europeans watch the U.S. and China take the lead in tech innovation. Get the full story at Harvard Business Review