EU competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said the search giant - “by far the biggest” search ad broker in the region, with its AdSense platform taking a share in Europe of “well above 70% since 2006” - had engaged in illegal practices in order to “cement its dominant market position”.

Google’s “restrictive clauses” worked directly against rivals scaling by creating “a vicious circle” of limited options for websites to sell ad space - forcing them “solely to rely on Google”.

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